Реферат: Taras Shevchenko
Реферат: Taras Shevchenko
Department of education and science of Ukraine
Ukrainian state university of chemical engineering
Department of foreign languages
st. gr. G-77
March 9 [O.S. February 25]
March 10 [O.S. February
Saint Petersburg, Russia
|Poet and artist
Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (Ukrainian:
Тарас Григорович Шевченко) (March 9 [O.S. February
25] 1814 – March 10 [O.S. February 26] 1861) was a Ukrainian poet, also an artist
and a humanist. His literary heritage is regarded to be the foundation of
modern Ukrainian literature and, to a large extent, of modern Ukrainian
language. Shevchenko also wrote in Russian and left many masterpieces of his
Born into a serf family in the village of Moryntsi,
of Kiev Governorate of the Russian Empire (now in Cherkasy Oblast, Ukraine.
Shevchenko was orphaned at the age of eleven. He was taught how
to read by a village precentor, and loved to draw at every opportunity.
Shevchenko served his owner Pavel Engelhardt in Vilnius (1828–1831) and then Saint
Engelhardt noticed Shevchenko's artistic
talent, and in Saint Petersburg he apprenticed him to the painter Vasiliy
Shiriaev for four years. There he met the Ukrainian artist Ivan Soshenko, who
introduced him to other compatriots, such as Yevhen Hrebinka and Vasyl
Hryhorovych, and to the Russian painter Alexey Venetsianov. Through these men
Shevchenko also met the famous painter and professor Karl Briullov, who donated
his portrait of the Russian poet Vasily Zhukovsky as a lottery prize, whose
proceeds were used to buy Shevchenko's freedom on May 5, 1838.
Taras Shevchenko, 1840.
In the same year Shevchenko was accepted as a
student into the Academy of Arts in the workshop of Karl Briullov. The next
year he became a resident student at the Association for the Encouragement
of Artists. At the annual examinations at the Imperial Academy of Arts,
Shevchenko was given a Silver Medal for a landscape. In 1840 he again received
the Silver Medal, this time for his first oil painting, The Beggar Boy
Giving Bread to a Dog.
He began writing poetry while he was a serf
and in 1840 his first collection of poetry, Kobzar, was published. Ivan
Franko, the renowned Ukrainian poet in the generation after Shevchenko, had
this to say of the compilation: "[Kobzar] immediately revealed, as
it were, a new world of poetry. It burst forth like a spring of clear, cold
water, and sparkled with a clarity, breadth and elegance of artistic expression
not previously known in Ukrainian writing."
In 1841, the epic poem Haidamaky was
released. In September of 1841, Shevchenko was awarded his third Silver Medal
for The Gypsy Fortune Teller. Shevchenko also wrote plays. In 1842, he
released a part of the tragedy Nykyta Hayday and in 1843 he completed
the drama Nazar Stodolya.
While residing in Saint Petersburg, Shevchenko
made three trips to Ukraine, in 1843, 1845, and 1846. The difficult conditions
under which his countrymen lived had a profound impact on the poet-painter.
Shevchenko visited his still enserfed siblings and other relatives, met with
prominent Ukrainian writers and intellectuals such as: Yevhen Hrebinka, Panteleimon
Kulish, and Mykhaylo Maksymovych, and was befriended by the princely Repnin
family especially Varvara Repnina.
In 1844, distressed by the tsarist oppression
and destruction of Ukraine, Shevchenko decided to capture some of his
homeland's historical ruins and cultural monuments in an album of etchings,
which he called Picturesque Ukraine.
Self-portrait as a
On March 22, 1845, the Council of the Academy of Arts decided to grant Shevchenko the title of an artist. He again travelled to
Ukraine where he met the historian, Nikolay Kostomarov and other members of the
Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius, a secret political society, created
to advocate a wide set of political reforms in the Russian Empire.
Upon the society's suppression by the authorities, Shevchenko was arrested
along with other members on April 5, 1847. Although he probably was not an
official member of the Brotherhood, during the search his poem "The
Dream" ("Son") was found. This poem criticized imperial
rule and therefore was considered extremely dangerous and of all the members of
the dismantled society Shevchenko was punished most severely.
Shevchenko was sent to prison in Saint
Petersburg. He was exiled as a private with the Russian military Orenburg
garrison at Orsk, near Orenburg, near the Ural Mountains. Tsar Nicholas I,
confirming his sentence, added to it, "Under the strictest surveillance,
with a ban on writing and painting." It was not until 1857 that Shevchenko
finally returned from exile after receiving a pardon, though he was not
permitted to return to St. Petersburg but was exiled to Nizhniy Novgorod. In
May of 1859, Shevchenko got permission to go to Ukraine. He intended to buy a
plot of land not far from the village of Pekariv and settle in Ukraine. In July, he was arrested on a charge of blasphemy, but was released and ordered to
return to St. Petersburg.
Death of Shevchenko
Taras Shevchenko spent the last years of his
life working on new poetry, paintings, and engravings, as well as editing his
older works. But after his difficult years in exile his final illness proved
too much. Shevchenko died in Saint Petersburg on March 10, 1861. He was first
buried at the Smolensk Cemetery in Saint Petersburg. However, fulfilling
Shevchenko's wish, as expressed in his poem "Testament" (Zapovit),
to be buried in Ukraine, his friends arranged to transfer his remains by train
to Moscow and then by horse-drawn wagon to his native land. Shevchenko's
remains were buried on May 8 on Chernecha Hora (Monk's Hill; now Tarasova
Hora or Taras' Hill) by the Dnieper River near Kaniv.
A tall mound was erected over his grave, now a memorial part of the Kaniv
Dogged by terrible misfortune in love and
life, the poet died seven days before the Emancipation of Serfs was announced.
His works and life are revered by Ukrainians and his impact on Ukrainian
literature is immense.
Heritage and legacy
A monument to Taras Shevchenko
in Kiev, Ukraine, is located across the Kiev University that bears the poet's
Taras Shevchenko has a unique place in
Ukrainian cultural history and in world literature. His writings formed the
foundation for the modern Ukrainian literature to a degree that he is also
considered the founder of the modern written Ukrainian language (although Ivan
Kotlyarevsky pioneered the literary work in what was close to the modern
Ukrainian in the end of the eighteenth century). Shevchenko's poetry
contributed greatly to the growth of Ukrainian national consciousness, and his
influence on various facets of Ukrainian intellectual, literary, and national
life is still felt to this day. Influenced by Romanticism, Shevchenko managed
to find his own manner of poetic expression that encompassed themes and ideas
germane to Ukraine and his personal vision of its past and future.
In view of his literary importance, the impact
of his artistic work is often missed although his contemporaries valued his
artistic work no less, or perhaps even more, than the literary one. A great number
of his pictures, drawings and etchings preserved to this day testify for his
unique artistic talent. He also experimented with the photography and it is
little known that Shevchenko may be considered to have pioneered the art of
etching in the Russian Empire (in 1860 he was awarded the title of the Academician
in the Imperial Academy of Arts specifically for his achievements in etching.)
His influence on the Ukrainian culture has
been so immense, that even at Soviet times, the official position was to
downplay strong Ukrainian nationalism expressed in his poetry, suppressing any
mention of it, and to put an emphasis on the social and anti-Tsarist aspects of
his legacy, the Class struggle within the Russian Empire. Shevchenko, who
himself was born a serf and suffered tremendously for his political views in
opposition to the established order of the Empire, was presented in the Soviet
times as an internationalist who stood up in general for the plight of the poor
classes exploited by the reactionary political regime rather than the vocal
proponent of the Ukrainian national idea.
This view is significantly revised in modern
independent Ukraine where he is now viewed as almost an iconic figure with the
unmatched significance for the Ukrainian nation, the view that has been mostly
shared all along by the Ukrainian diaspora that has always revered Shevchenko.
Monuments and Memorials
The ceremonial opening of the
monument by the Latvian sculptor Janis Tilbergs to Taras Shevchenko in Petrograd
(Saint Petersburg) on December 1, 1918. The inscription says: "To the
great Ukrainian poet-pesant T. G. Shevchenko (1814 - 1861) from the great
Russian nation." The plaster monument existed for only eight years due to
the deterioration of the material in the open air. It was planned to be
replaced by a bronze version which never happened.
There are many monuments to Shevchenko
throughout Ukraine, most notably at his memorial in Kaniv and in the center of Kiev,
just across the Kiev University that bears his name. The Kiev Metro station, Tarasa
Shevchenka, is also dedicated to Shevchenko. Among other notable monuments to
the poet located throughout Ukraine are the ones in Kharkiv (in front of the Shevchenko
Park), Lviv, Luhansk and many others.
Outside of Ukraine monuments to Shevchenko
have been put up in several location of the former USSR associated with his
legacy, both in the Soviet and the post-Soviet times. The modern monument in Saint
Petersburg was erected on December 22, 2000, but the first monument (pictured)
was built in the city in 1918 on the order of Lenin shortly after the Great
Russian Revolution. There is also a monument located next to the Shevchenko
museum at the square that bears the poet's name in Orsk, Russia (the location
of the military garrison where the poet served) where there are also a street,
a library and the Pedagogical Institute named to the poet. There
are Shevchenko monuments and museums in the cities of Kazakhstan where he was
later transferred by the military: Aqtau (the city was named Shevchenko
between 1964 and 1992) and nearby Fort Shevchenko (renamed from Fort Alexandrovsky in 1939).
After Ukraine gained its independence in the
wake of the 1991 Soviet Collapse, some Ukrainian cities replaced their statues
of Lenin with statues of Taras Shevchenko
and in some locations that lacked streets named to him, local authorities
renamed the streets or squares to Shevchenko, even though these sites usually
have little or no connection to his biography. These memorials testify,
perhaps, to a greater spirit of patriotism than historical accuracy.
Outside of Ukraine and the former USSR
monuments to Shevchenko have been put up in many countries, usually under the
initiative of local Ukrainian diasporas. There are several memorial societies
and monuments to him throughout Canada and the United States, most notably a
monument in Washington, D.C., near Dupont Circle. There is also a monument in
Tipperary Hill in Syracuse, United States.
The town of Vita in Manitoba, Canada was
originally named Shevchenko in his honor. There is a Shevchenko Square in Paris
located in the heart of the central Saint-Germain-des-Prés district. The
Leo Mol sculpture garden in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, contains many images of
A two-tonne bronze statue of Shevchenko,
located in a memorial park outside of Oakville, Ontario was discovered stolen
in December 2006. It was taken for scrap metal; the head was recovered in a
damaged state, but the statue was not repairable.
Shevchenko monument in Luhansk, Ukraine.
of Taras Shevchenko in Lviv, Ukraine
Taras Shevchenko Monument in Washington, D.C.
Shevchenko Place Street
Sign in New York City, NY
Example of poetry
I am dead, bury me
In my beloved Ukraine,
My tomb upon a grave mound high
Amid the spreading plain,
So that the fields, the boundless steppes,
The Dnieper's plunging shore
My eyes could see, my ears could hear
The mighty river roar.
from Ukraine the Dnieper bears
Into the deep blue sea
The blood of foes ... then will I leave
These hills and fertile fields --
I'll leave them all and fly away
To the abode of God,
And then I'll pray .... But till that
I nothing know of God.
bury me, then rise ye up
And break your heavy chains
And water with the tyrants' blood
The freedom you have gained.
And in the great new family,
The family of the free,
With softly spoken, kindly word
Remember also me.
Shevchenko, 25 December 1845, Pereyaslav.
Shevchenko, Taras (English).
Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Retrieved on March 22, 2007.
(Russian)Paola Utevskaya, Dmitriy Gorbachev, «He could
have understood Picasso himself», Zerkalo Nedeli, July 26 - August 1, 1997.
(Russian)Historical page of Orsk.